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Minor Disturbance Full !LINK! Version

Administration of controlled substances fortreatment of mental illness or emotional disturbance; parental consentrequired. Provides that a minor shall not be deemed an adultfor the purpose of consenting to administration of medication for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbance. Currently,a minor is deemed an adult for the purpose of consenting to medicaland health services needed in the case of outpatient care, treatment, or rehabilitation for mental illness or emotional disturbance.

minor disturbance full version

There's no sure way to prevent cyclothymia. However, treatment at the earliest indication of a mental health disorder can help prevent cyclothymia from worsening. Long-term preventive treatment also can help prevent minor symptoms from becoming full-blown episodes of hypomania, mania or major depression.

Background/Question/Methods Phragmites australis is invading wetland communities across the United States and has resulted in declines of native plant and animal diversity and alterations to nutrient cycling. Our objective was to understand how small disturbances allow for the invasion of the invasive strain of Phragmites. A survey of disturbances across four native plant communities (Spartina patens/Distichlis spicata, Schoenoplectus americanus, Iva frutescens, and Typha angustifolia) showed that the majority were caused by deer, muskrats, and humans. An experiment tested the emergence of Phragmites seeds and rhizomes in artificially created disturbances, imitating those most commonly found in the survey, across these same plant communities. We planted seeds and rhizomes in one of three disturbance types within each plant community: a control, an above ground disturbance (minor disturbance), or a below ground disturbance (severe disturbance).

We found that seed germination increased significantly (3.7X) in the less inundated plant communities with an increase in disturbance severity; we attribute this to higher light levels, higher temperatures, and less flooding. There was low Phragmites seed germination in the more inundated plant community where light levels and temperatures were lower and flooding more frequent. Rhizome emergence was consistently low (8.6%) across all plant communities and disturbance treatments. We predict that Phragmites is most likely to invade by seed in disturbed, less flooded marsh communities.

Kettenring, Karin M., "The effect of small disturbances on germination and emergence of Phragmites australis in brackish wetlands" (2008). Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications. Paper 576. _facpub/576 350c69d7ab


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